Tuesday, December 3, 2013

Concurrency in Java

If a system that allows to execute multiple tasks simultaneously that system is called a Concurrent System

The Java language and the JVM have been designed to support concurrent programming from the beginning. Since Java 5.0 version, it has also included high-level concurrency APIs in java.uti.concurrent packages. Also the later versions introduced updated versions of the existing APIs, also added several new APIs.


Processes and Threads:


  • In concurrent programming, there are two basic units of execution, called processes and threads. In Java, concurrent programming mainly concerned about threads.
  • A process has a self-contained execution environment. It generally has a complete private set of basic run-time resources, in particular, each process has its own memory space.
  • Threads are sometimes called as lightweight processes. Both processes and threads provide and execution environment, but creating new threads requires fewer resources than required for new processes.
  • Threads exist within a process. Every process has at least one thread
  • Threads share the process's resources, including memory and open files. 
  • Java Program runs in its own process and by default in one thread.

 Thread Basics:

  • A thread is a thread of execution. 
  • The JVM allows an application to have multiple threads of execution running concurrently. 
  • Each thread has a priority. Threads with higher priority are executed in preference to the threads with the lower priority. 
  • Each thread may or may not have also marked a Daemon
  • When a JVM starts up, there is usually a single non-daemon thread (which typically invokes the main method).
  • The JVM continues to execute the threads until either of the following occurs:
    • The exit method of Runtime class has been invoked and the security manager has allowed the exit method to execute.
    • All threads that are not daemon threads have died, either by returning from the run method call or by throwing an exception.


Creating and Running Threads:

Threads can be created in two ways: 
    • Extending Thread class and overriding run() method.
    • Building a class that implements Runnable interface and then creating an object of Thread class passing the Runnable object as a parameter.
Below is a simple example of creating threads using the second approach. This example creates 10 threads, each of the thread calculate and prints the multiplication tables from 1 to 10.

Steps to implement the example:
  • Create a class Name Calculator implementing Runnable interface.
public class Calculator implements Runnable
  • Declare a private int attribute named number and implement the constructor to initialize its value.
private int number;
  • Implement the run() method. This method calculates the multiplication table of the number.
 public void run() {
  for (int i = 1; i <= 10; i++) {
   System.out.printf("%s: %d * %d = %d\n", Thread.currentThread()
     .getName(), number, i, i * number);
  • Implement the main class of the application, which contains main() method.
  • Inside the main() method, create a for loop with 10 iterations. Inside for loop, create an object of Calculator class, an object of the Thread class, pass the object of Calculator class as a parameter, and invoke the start() method of the Thread object.
public class Main {
 public static void main(String[] args) {
  for(int i=0; i<10; i++){
   Thread thread = new Thread(new Calculator(i));

Below is the partial output of a sample run of the above code:

  • Every Java Program has atleast one thread in Execution. When we run a program, JVM runs the execution thread that calls main() method.
  • Creating an object to the Thread class doesn't create an execution of the Thread. Or calling the run() method of the implemented Runnable interface will not create a new execution of Thread. Invoking start() method on creates a new execution thread.
  • When we call the start() method of Thread object, it creates another execution thread. Our program will have as many threads as calls to the start() method are made.
  • A Java program ends when all its threads(all non-daemon) finishes.
  • If the initial thread(the one that executes main() method) ends, the rest of threads continue with their execution until they finish.
  • If a thread is exited by calling System.exit(), all threads end their execution.

  • http://docs.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/api/java/util/concurrent/package-summary.html
  • http://docs.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/concurrency/
  • Java 7 Concurrency Book by Javier Fern√°ndez

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